main components of hybrid electric vehicles

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The prime mover of a hybrid vehicle is its main energy source, which generally is one of the following: a gasoline engine, a diesel engine, or fuel cells. Some varieties of HEV use an internal combustion engine to turn an electrical generator, which either recharges the vehicle's batteries or directly powers its electric drive motors; this combination is known as a motor–generator. In 2003, GM introduced a hybrid diesel-electric military (light) truck, equipped with a diesel electric and a fuel cell auxiliary power unit. About 600 were made up to 1918. [123] In Australia, over 50,000 Lexus and Toyota models have been sold through February 2014. They claim that approximately 300 vehicles, mostly route buses are using Hinos HIMR (Hybrid Inverter Controlled Motor & Retarder) system. [80][83] The hybrid technology in the S400 was co-developed by Daimler AG and BMW. Toyota sales were led by Prius with 41,495 units. [236][237] During the first eight months of 2013, around 65% of TMC cars sold in the Netherlands have been hybrids, with the technology particularly popular among fleet owners and taxi drivers. Plug-in hybrids (PHEVs), which are now in the market, employ an even larger batter pack that drastically reduces the need for gasoline.

The Honda Insight first generation stopped being produced after 2006 and has a devoted base of owners. A PHEV shares the characteristics of both a conventional hybrid electric vehicle, having an electric motor and an internal combustion engine; and of an all-electric vehicle, also having a plug to connect to the electrical grid. [205][206] Nevertheless, during the 2011 Japanese fiscal year (April 1, 2011 through March 31, 2012), hybrid vehicles accounted for 16% of all new car sales in the country. For large boats that are already diesel-electric, the upgrade to hybrid can be as straightforward as adding a large battery bank and control equipment; this configuration can provide fuel saving for the operators as well as being more environmentally sensitive.[308][309]. The power curve of electric motors is better suited to variable speeds and can provide substantially greater torque at low speeds compared with internal-combustion engines. Below 15 mph (24 km/h) the electric motor alone drove the vehicle, drawing power from a battery pack, and above this speed the "main" engine cut in to take the car up to its 35 mph (56 km/h) top speed. The top five hybrids ranked by the Environmental Protection Agency in 2008 are, in order of fuel efficiency: Toyota Prius, Honda Civic Hybrid, Nissan Altima Hybrid, Ford Escape Hybrid and the Mazda Tribute Hybrid. There have been no concrete dates suggested for these vehicles, but press statements have suggested production vehicles would not appear before 2009. Manufacturers may move to flexible fuel engines, which would increase allowable ratios, but no plans are in place at present. In central London, these vehicles are also exempt from the £11.5 daily London congestion charge. The diesel-powered Peugeot 3008 HYbrid4, launched in late 2011, sold 401 units. Railpower offers hybrid electric road switchers,[306] as does GE. Hybrid vehicles might use an internal combustion engine running on biofuels, such as a flexible-fuel engine running on ethanol or engines running on biodiesel. Reversible extraction of lithium from This resulted in 'demand destruction' as many producers quickly turned to substituting induction motors in their cars to defend their production line. [178] Hybrid sales in 2013 increased 1.72% from 2012, with 10,294 units registered. [124][125], As of January 2020[update], global hybrid sales led by Toyota Motor Company (TMC) with over 15 million Lexus and Toyota hybrids sold;[6] followed by Honda Motor Co., Ltd. with cumulative global sales of more than 1.35 million hybrids as of June 2014[update];[12][13][14] Ford Motor Corporation with over 424,000 hybrids sold in the United States through June 2015, of which, around 10% are plug-in hybrids;[126][112][127][128][129] Hyundai Group with cumulative global sales of 200,000 hybrids as of March 2014[update], including both Hyundai Motors and Kia Motors hybrid models;[130] and PSA Peugeot Citroën with over 50,000 diesel-powered hybrids sold in Europe through December 2013. [217], Since 2000, when the Prius was launched in the UK, 100,000 Toyota hybrids had been sold by May 2014, and almost 50,000 Lexus models since the introduction of the RX 400h in 2005. [1] TMC achieved the 15 million sales milestone in January 2020. By 2013 the hybrid market share accounted for more than 30% of the 2.9 million standard passenger vehicles sold, and about 20% of the 4.5 million passenger vehicles including kei cars. [217][218] The Netherlands is the leading country within the Union states with a market share of 3.7% of total passenger car sales in 2014, though fewer hybrid vehicles were sold in the Dutch market in 2014 than in previous years. This means molecular hydrogen, H2, is combined with oxygen to form water. Shown a RechargeIT's plug-in converted Prius (left) and a conventional Toyota Prius (right).

[328] As of 2007[update], these included the cleanest LPG and natural gas cars and most hybrid-, battery- and fuel cell-electric vehicles. [321] Residents in British Columbia are eligible for a 100% reduction of sales tax up to a maximum of $2,000 if the hybrid electric vehicle is purchased or leased before April 1, 2011, (extended in 2007/2008 budget from March 31, 2008, and expanded from a maximum of only $1,000 from April 1, 2008, to March 31, 2009, at which point the concession was scheduled to expire. An HEV/plug-in HEV (PHEV) consists of two movers: an internal combustion engine (ICE) propulsion system and an electric propulsion system. In 1982, Fritz Karl Preikschat invented an electric propulsion and braking system for cars based on regenerative braking. [1] Cumulative sales of Honda's hybrid vehicles since November 1999 reached 25,239 units by January 2009,[200] and in March 2010, Honda announced that the new 2010 Insight broke through 100,000 sales in Japan in just one year after its introduction.

Most diesel vehicles can use 100% pure biofuels (biodiesel), so they can use but do not need petroleum at all for fuel (although mixes of biofuel and petroleum are more common). The electric battery in the vehicle adds considerable weight to the hybrids, which lowers a vehicle's fuel efficiency. Additional power to charge the battery was provided by a cylinder of compressed air which was re-charged by small air pumps activated by vibrations of the chassis and the brakes and by igniting oxyhydrogen gas.

The prime mover of a hybrid vehicle is its main energy source, which generally is one of the following: a gasoline engine, a diesel …

[citation needed], In some cases, manufacturers are producing HEVs that use the added energy provided by the hybrid systems to give vehicles a power boost, rather than significantly improved fuel efficiency compared to their traditional counterparts. [274], As of mid-2010, and in advance of upcoming legislation, some carmakers announced their decision to address this safety issue shared by regular hybrids and all types of plug-in electric vehicles, and as a result, the Nissan Leaf and Chevrolet Volt, both launched in late 2010, and the Nissan Fuga hybrid and the Fisker Karma plug-in hybrid, both launched in 2011, include synthesized sounds to alert pedestrians, the blind and others to their presence. In mild hybrids, the electric motor boosts the gasoline engine when it needs more power, resulting in the automatic shut-on/shut-off feature recognized in some hybrids. [34][35] He went on to test and market the Patton Motor Car, a gas-electric hybrid system used to drive tram cars and small locomotives. those used in the Tesla.

If the engine is not used to drive the car directly, it can be geared to run at maximum efficiency, further improving fuel economy. The European version, named Prius +, was launched in June 2012. A January 2007 analysis by Intellichoice.com shows that all 22 available HEVs will save their owners money over a five-year period.

[84] In December 2009 BMW began sales of its full hybrid BMW ActiveHybrid X6, while Daimler launched the Mercedes-Benz ML450 Hybrid by lease only. [330], As of April 2010, three auto manufactures reached the 60,000 cap; Toyota Motor Company reached it in 2007, Honda in 2008, and as of April 1, 2010, no Ford Motor Company hybrid vehicles remained eligible for this tax credit. [citation needed] In exchange for the hybrid licenses, Ford licensed patents involving their European diesel engines to Toyota.

[227] The top-selling model in 2015 was the Toyota Auris Hybrid, with 75,810 units, up 13.0% from 2014; followed by the Yaris Hybrid with 68,902 units, up 22% from 2014. [219] By January 2009, Honda had sold 35,149 hybrids in Europe, of which 34,757 were Honda Civic Hybrids. [2][40] George Fischer sold hybrid buses to England in 1901; Knight Neftal produced a racing hybrid in 1902. Electrochemical extraction of lithium from isostructural [271][272] The rules are scheduled to go into effect in September 2014. The varieties of hybrid electric designs can be differentiated by the structure of the hybrid vehicle drivetrain, the fuel type, and the mode of operation.

Toyota, Honda, Ford, Chevrolet, BMW, Volvo and BYD, among others, are leading the world in car innovations including the design of highly sophisticated hybrid electric vehicles. French registrations account plug-in hybrid together with conventional hybrids. Its electric starter was used 16 years before Cadillac's.

It used the electric motor to charge its batteries at cruise speed and used both motors to accelerate or climb a hill. [78][79] The Elantra LPI Hybrid delivers a fuel economy rating of 41.9 miles per US gallon (5.61 L/100 km; 50.3 mpg‑imp) and CO2 emissions of 99 g/km to qualify as a Super Ultra Low Emission Vehicle (SULEV). [291] Hybrid racecars have been very successful, as is shown by the Audi R18 and Porsche 919, which have won the 24 hours of Le Mans using hybrid technology.

Commencing in fall 2007, General Motors began to market their 2008 Two-Mode Hybrid models of their GMT900-based Chevrolet Tahoe and GMC Yukon SUVs, closely followed by the 2009 Cadillac Escalade Hybrid[72] version. [44][45] The United States Army's 1928 Experimental Motorized Force tested a gasoline-electric bus in a truck convoy. Contrary to myth, hybrid vehicles do not need to be plugged in for the battery to be fully charged. Companies such as Zero Motorcycles[284] and Vectrix have market-ready all-electric motorcycles available now, but the pairing of electrical components and an internal combustion engine (ICE) has made packaging cumbersome, especially for niche brands.

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